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Reviews in Oncology

Endocrine resistance in breast cancer: biological mechanisms and clinical implications to develop new treatment strategies

Review, 141 - 149
doi: 10.11138/rio/2013.1.4.141
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Abstract
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Breast cancer is one of the most common tumor with more than 1.300.000 cases and 450.000 deaths each year worldwide (1). Breast cancer represents a complex and heterogeneous disease, characterized by different pathological, and histological features related to clinical outcomes. Several studies on gene expression profiles have identified specific molecular portraits conferring different clinical outcomes (2). Actually, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) status have been used as predictive biomarkers to identify high-risk phenotypes and to select the most efficacious therapies.
Approximately new 700.000 breast cancers each year are hormone receptor positive and the estrogen deprivation represents a major treatment strategy (3, 4). Furthermore, patients responding to endocrine treatments can develop resistance, that is one of the major challenge for the clinical management of these patients (5).
Several mechanisms are involved in the development of endocrine resistance: activation of growth factor signaling pathways, PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, altered expression of microRNA, reduced expression of ERa, altered regulation of co-activators of ER, (6-9).
Early identification of the biological mechanisms involved in the endocrine resistance can contribute to develop new therapeutic strategies in breast cancer patients.

Vol. 3 (No. 1) 2015 January - December

  1. Pregnancy in breast cancer survivors: safety and feasibility
    Stani S.C., Sini V.
    doi: 10.11138/rio/2015.1.5.105
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  1. Endocrine resistance in breast cancer: biological mechanisms and clinical implications to develop new treatment strategies
    Cannita K., Coccolone V., Bruera G., Ficorella C., Ricevuto E.
    doi: 10.11138/rio/2013.1.4.141
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